The next era of computing is the evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Cities with development of the Internet of Simulation (IoS). The existing technologies of Cloud, Edge, and Fog computing as well as HPC being applied to the domains of Big Data and deep learning are not adequate to handle the scale and complexity of the systems required to facilitate a fully integrated and automated smart city. This integration of existing systems will create an explosion of data streams at a scale not yet experienced. The additional data can be combined with simulations as services (SIMaaS) to provide a shared model of reality across all integrated systems, things, devices, and individuals within the city. There are also numerous challenges in managing the security and safety of the integrated systems. This paper presents an overview of the existing state of-the-art in automating, augmenting, and integrating systems across the domains of smart cities, autonomous vehicles, energy efficiency, smart manufacturing in Industry 4.0, and healthcare. Additionally the key challenges relating to Big Data, a model of reality, augmentation of systems, computation, and security are examined.

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